Grid-connected cabin preheating of Electric Vehicles in cold climates – A non-flexible share of the EV energy use
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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The number of EVs is increasing globally. In cold climates, it is generally recommended to use electricity from the grid to preheat the EV cabin before using the car, to extend driving ranges, to ensure comfort, and for safety. A majority of such preheating sessions are happening in the morning hours during the winter, when there is also a high demand for other energy use. It is thus important to understand the power loads for grid-connected preheating of EV cabins. This work presents an experimental study, with 51 preheating sessions of five typical EV models during different outdoor temperatures. The results of the study showed that during the preheating sessions, most of the EVs had a power use of between 3 and 8 kW initially, which was reduced to about 2 to 4 kW after a 10 to 20 min initial period. For most of the sessions, the preheating lasted between 15 and 45 min. The preheating energy use was found to be up to 2 kWh for most EVs, with a maximum of 5 kWh. Multiple linear regression models were developed, to investigate the relationship between various variables and the energy use for preheating. Finally, hourly energy loads for EV cabin preheating were compared to other energy loads in apartment buildings. The power and energy loads for preheating EV cabins are affected by a number of parameters, such as the specific EV, charge point, preheating duration, temperature levels, and user habits.