Documentation tool of nature-based solutions – a guideline
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Nature-based solutions (NBS) can be found in many forms and variations that make information of specific aspects connected to them are difficult to populate. As an asset, NBS should be managed properly right from the beginning of planning, design, and construction process, up to the operation and maintenance phase. On the other hand, decision-making in asset management of water-related infrastructures depends strongly on the available data on the assets' characteristics and operation and maintenance (O&M) activities. Thus, the need for a general NBS documentation tool consisting of 'data structure' that allows asset managers to register useful and necessary information of NBS, is of paramount importance. The data structure presented in this guideline should be adaptable to different NBS types and allow multiple benefits to different actors/stakeholders depending on their specific interests on the subject. The data structure should also be flexible to account for a 'system solution' i.e. to assess the combined effects of two or more NBS in parallel or serial arrangement. Installation of sensors can improve monitoring of NBS performance and status in a more quantitative way. This would also contribute to asses necessary maintenance action and/or rehabilitation of NBS during its operation period. However, NBS promises low cost of construction, operation and maintenance and sensor installation may contribute a significant amount of expenses/investment and possible operational costs. Hence, a careful consideration of sensor type(s) and monitored parameter(s) must be taken if NBS type of installation is to be equipped with sensors and to what extend these sensors are beneficial in supporting the operation of NBS. This guideline provides a few examples of sensors applications and application of data structure for two KLIMA2050 pilots and a commercial, prefabricated NBS product.