Self-Sensing Well Cement
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionMaterials. 2021, 14 (5), . 10.3390/ma14051235
Chemical reactions with reservoir fluids and geology related in-situ stress changes may cause damages to cement sealing material in plugged and abandoned oil, gas and CO2 wells. To avoid leakages, a legitimate monitoring technique is needed that could allow for early warning in case such damages occur. In this paper, we test the utility of oil and gas well cement with a conductive filler in sensing stress changes. To this end, we have measured the resistance response of Portland G—oil and gas well cement with carbon nanofibers (CNF) to axial load during uniaxial compressive strength test. Simultaneously, the microseismicity data were collected. The resistance of the nanocomposite was measured using two-point method in the direction of loading. The resistance changes were correlated with acoustic emission events. A total of four different material response regions were distinguished and the resistivity and acoustic emission changes in these regions were described. Our results suggest that the two complementary methods, i.e., acoustic emission and resistance measurements, can be used for sensing stress state in materials including well cement/CNF composites. The results suggest that the well cement/CNF composites can be a good candidate material to be used as a transducer sensing changes in stress state in, e.g., well plugs up to material failure.