Energy flexibility potential of domestic hot water systems in apartment buildings
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Domestic Hot Water (DHW) storage tanks are identified as a main source of flexible energy use in buildings. As a basis for energy management in apartment buildings, this paper describes the aggregated DHW use in a case building, and analyses the potential for DHW energy flexibility by simulating different control options. The case study for the work is an apartment building in Oslo with 56 apartments and a shared DHW system. Energy measurements are available for consumed hot water, hot water circulation, and energy supplied to the DHW tanks. The measurements are presented with minute, hourly and daily values. Aggregated daily energy use for the consumed hot water is in average 362 kWh, while the energy supplied is 555 kWh. The potential for energy flexibility is analysed for a base case and for four different rule-based control options: Power limitation, Spot price savings, Flexibility sale and Solar energy. Economic consequences of the control options are compared. With the Norwegian tariff structure, maximum hourly power use has the main impact on the cost. Control systems that aim to reduce the maximum power use may be combined with spot price savings or to offer end-user flexibility services to the grid.