Innovative Nondestructive Measurements of Water Activity and the Content of Salts in Low-Salt Hake Minces
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2014, 62 (12), 2496-2505. 10.1021/jf405527t
Impedance spectroscopy (IS), low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (LF 1H NMR), chloride titration, ion chromatography, and an ion selective electrode were used to investigate the physicochemical parameters and measure sodium and potassium contents in low-salt brines and fish. Salt solutions (0–3 w/w, %) and model products of minced hake with added NaCl (0.5–3.0 w/w, %), or a mixture of NaCl and KCl (50/50 w/w, %), were analyzed. Good correlation was observed between the sodium content determined by using the ion selective electrode method and ion chromatography (R2 = 0.97). In both salt solutions and fish minces, the impedance spectroscopy measurements could detect the difference in salt contents in mince with salt contents down to 0.5%. The NMR transversal relaxation time T2 measurements clearly distinguished samples with 0, 0.5, and 1.0–3.0% salt, based on principal component analysis (PCA). Therefore, LF 1H NMR seems to be a suitable technique for studies of low-salt products.