Living Labs for Innovation and Development of Information and Communication Technology: A Literature Review
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionElectronic Journal of Organizational Virtualness. 2008, 10, 99-131.
Living Labs are environments for involving users in innovation and development, and are regarded as a way of meeting the innovation challenges faced by information and communication technology (ICT) service providers. Living Labs have thus generated a great deal of interest in the field of ICT in the course of the last few years. However, the current body of Living Lab research literature indicates a lack of common understanding of how Living Labs can be used for ICT innovation and development. Moreover, there appears to be little agreement regarding needed future research. In order to establish a basis for future work on Living Labs, a review of the Living Lab literature related to ICT innovation and development has been carried out. Literature searches were made in four academic archives, as well as the ISI Web of Knowledge, Google and Google Scholar. Thirty-two relevant academic papers were retrieved. An overview of the literature was established and the literature was analyzed with regard to (1) common and diverging perspectives on Living Labs, (2) the state-of-the-art of Living Lab processes and methods, and (3) theoretical foundations of Living Labs. On the basis of the analyses, a common Living Lab definition is suggested. Two emerging Living Lab trends, as well as a pressing need for future research on Living Lab processes and methods, are introduced and discussed.Living Labs for Innovation and Development of Information and Communication Technology: A Literature Review