Mapping of hydrogen fuel quality in Europe
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionFrontiers in Energy Research. 2020, 8 1-10. 10.3389/fenrg.2020.585334
As part of FCH-JU funded HyCoRA project running from 2014 to 2017, 28 gaseous and 13 particulate samples were collected from hydrogen refueling stations in Europe. Samples were collected with commercial sampling instruments and analysis performed in compliance with prevailing fuel quality standards. Sampling was conducted with focus on diversity in feedstock as well as commissioning date of the HRS. Results indicate that the strategy for sampling was good. No evidence of impurity cross-over was observed. Parallel samples collected indicate some variation in analytical results. It was however found that fuel quality was generally good. Fourteen analytical results were in violation with the fuel tolerance limits. Therefore, eight or 29% of the samples were in violation with the fuel quality requirements. Nitrogen, oxygen and organics were the predominant impurities quantified. Particulate impurities were found to be within fuel quality specifications. No correlation between fuel quality and hydrogen feedstock or HRS commissioning date was found. Nitrogen to oxygen ratios gave no indication of samples being contaminated by air. A comparison of analytical results between two different laboratories were conducted. Some difference in analytical results were observed.
JournalFrontiers in Energy Research
CopyrightCopyright © 2020 Aarhaug, Kjos, Ferber, Hsu and Bacquart. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
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