DHW tank sizing considering dynamic energy prices
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Due to the rapid development of the building stock in Norway, the energy use in this segment is drastically increasing. Therefore, improving the energy performance of buildings becoming an urgent problem. Among technical systems in buildings, domestic hot water (DHW) systems have still significant untapped potential for energy saving. Storage tanks enable us to change DHW demand in buildings in a more energy-efficient and cost-effective way. However, to achieve this effect, the proper sizing and operation of the storage tanks are required. The aim of this study was to define a method for the DHW tank size optimization considering dynamic electricity prices and to assess how different electricity pricing methods would influence the DHW tank size. A dynamic discretized model of the DHW tank was used as a DHW tank model. Dynamic optimization was implemented as the optimization method to find the optimal tank charging rate based on the different pricing methods. Two pricing methods were considered in this study: 1) the current method with the fixed grid fee and 2) the power extraction method with the pricing of the maximum power extraction. The results showed that the electricity pricing pattern had significant impact on the DHW charging heating rate. In the case of the extraction fee pricing method, the charging rate was more stable over the day than in the case of the fixed grid fee. This stable charging rate gave stable DHW tank temperature over the day and the highest decrease in the total cost. A general conclusion was that the extraction grid fee pricing method would promote for stable charging over the day.