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dc.contributor.authorBluhm, Bodil
dc.contributor.authorJanout, Markus
dc.contributor.authorDanielson, Seth L.
dc.contributor.authorEllingsen, Ingrid H.
dc.contributor.authorGavrilo, Maria
dc.contributor.authorGrebmeier, Jaqueline
dc.contributor.authorHopcroft, Russell R.
dc.contributor.authorIken, Katrin
dc.contributor.authorIngvaldsen, Randi Brunvær
dc.contributor.authorJørgensen, Lis Lindal
dc.contributor.authorKosobokova, Ksenia N.
dc.contributor.authorKwok, Ron
dc.contributor.authorPolyakov, Igor V.
dc.contributor.authorRenaud, Paul E.
dc.contributor.authorCarmack, Eddy C.
dc.description.abstractContinental slopes – steep regions between the shelf break and abyssal ocean – play key roles in the climatology and ecology of the Arctic Ocean. Here, through review and synthesis, we find that the narrow slope regions contribute to ecosystem functioning disproportionately to the size of the habitat area (∼6% of total Arctic Ocean area). Driven by inflows of sub-Arctic waters and steered by topography, boundary currents transport boreal properties and particle loads from the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans along-slope, thus creating both along and cross-slope connectivity gradients in water mass properties and biomass. Drainage of dense, saline shelf water and material within these, and contributions of river and meltwater also shape the characteristics of the slope domain. These and other properties led us to distinguish upper and lower slope domains; the upper slope (shelf break to ∼800 m) is characterized by stronger currents, warmer sub-surface temperatures, and higher biomass across several trophic levels (especially near inflow areas). In contrast, the lower slope has slower-moving currents, is cooler, and exhibits lower vertical carbon flux and biomass. Distinct zonation of zooplankton, benthic and fish communities result from these differences. Slopes display varying levels of system connectivity: (1) along-slope through property and material transport in boundary currents, (2) cross-slope through upwelling of warm and nutrient rich water and down-welling of dense water and organic rich matter, and (3) vertically through shear and mixing. Slope dynamics also generate separating functions through (1) along-slope and across-slope fronts concentrating biological activity, and (2) vertical gradients in the water column and at the seafloor that maintain distinct physical structure and community turnover. At the upper slope, climatic change is manifested in sea-ice retreat, increased heat and mass transport by sub-Arctic inflows, surface warming, and altered vertical stratification, while the lower slope has yet to display evidence of change. Model projections suggest that ongoing physical changes will enhance primary production at the upper slope, with suspected enhancing effects for consumers. We recommend Pan-Arctic monitoring efforts of slopes given that many signals of climate change appear there first and are then transmitted along the slope domain.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.subjectbiological communitiesen_US
dc.subjectboundary currenten_US
dc.subjectclimate changeen_US
dc.subjectcontinental slopesen_US
dc.subjectshelf-basin exchangeen_US
dc.subjectvertical and cross-slope gradientsen_US
dc.titleArctic continental slopes sharp gradients of physical processes affect pelagic and benthic ecosystems.en_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright © 2020 Bluhm, Janout, Danielson, Ellingsen, Gavrilo, Grebmeier, Hopcroft, Iken, Ingvaldsen, Jørgensen, Kosobokova, Kwok, Polyakov, Renaud and Carmack. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.en_US
dc.source.journalFrontiers in Marine Scienceen_US
dc.relation.projectTromsø forskningsstiftelse: Arctic SIZEen_US

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Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal
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