KLD HFC free Chiller India : environmental benefits of implementing a CO2 heat pump for combined heating and cooling at Bengaluru centralised school kitchen
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Akshaya Patra Foundation is the world’s largest (not-for-profit) Mid-Day Meal Programme operating around 50 centralised kitchens supplying wholesome food to over 1.8 million children at more than 16,000 schools in 12 different states across India. In the project presented in this report, a heat pump using the natural refrigerant CO2 is proposed as an energy-efficient and climate-friendly concept for the centralised kitchen at Bengaluru. The CO2 heat pump does not only replace the HCFC units for space cooling, but also supplies hot water to the cooking process, reducing the steam boiler's fuel consumption. A cold and hot water storage is included to balance the mismatch in cooling and heating demand on a daily basis. The proposed concept offers substantial reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the cooling system (almost 60%). For the total system (cooking process and space cooling) the reduction in energy demand, energy cost and GHG emissions are all above 30%. This clearly shows the possibility for India to efficiently bypass the use of HFCs as temporary replacements for HCFCs, and by that avoiding significant GHG emissions and costly replacement processes. Suggestions for potential future improvements include a roof-top solar power system and a steam producing heat pump using natural refrigerants.