Marine biofouling and the role of biocidal coatings in balancing environmental impacts
Peer reviewed, Journal article
MetadataShow full item record
Original versionBiofouling. 2023, 39, 6, 661-681. 10.1080/08927014.2023.2246906
Marine biofouling is a global problem affecting various industries, particularly the shipping industry due to long-distance voyages across various ecosystems. Therein fouled hulls cause increased fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and the spread of invasive aquatic species. To counteract these issues, biofouling management plans are employed using manual cleaning protocols and protective coatings. This review provides a comprehensive overview of adhesion strategies of marine organisms, and currently available mitigation methods. Further, recent developments and open challenges of antifouling (AF) and fouling release (FR) coatings are discussed with regards to the future regulatory environment. Finally, an overview of the environmental and economic impact of fouling is provided to point out why and when the use of biocidal solutions is beneficial in the overall perspective.