Removing fluoride-terminations from multilayered V2CTx MXene by gas hydrolyzation
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionACS Omega. 2022, 7 (27), 23790-23799. 10.1021/acsomega.2c02441
Two-dimensional MXenes have shown great promise for many different applications, but in order to fully utilize their potential, control of their termination groups is essential. Here we demonstrate hydrolyzation with a continuous gas flow as a method to remove F-terminations from multilayered V2CTx particles, in order to prepare nearly F-free and partly bare vanadium carbide MXene. Density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the substitution of F-terminations is thermodynamically feasible and presents partly nonterminated V2CO as the dominating hydrolyzation product. Hydrolyzation at elevated temperatures reduced the F content but only subtly changed the O content, as inferred from spectroscopic data. The ideal hydrolyzation temperature was found to be 300 °C, as a degradation of the V2CTx phase and a transition to vanadium oxycarbides and V2O3 were observed at higher temperature. When tested as electrodes in Li-ion batteries, the hydrolyzed MXene demonstrated a reduced polarization compared with the pristine MXene, but no change in intercalation voltage was observed. Annealing in dry Ar did not result in the same F reduction, and the importance of water vapor was concluded, demonstrating hydrolyzation as a new and efficient method to control the surface terminations of multilayered V2CTx post etching. These results also provide new insights on the thermal stability of V2CTx MXene in hydrated atmospheres.