Wire arc additive manufacturing of AA5183 with TiC nanoparticles
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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OriginalversjonThe International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology. 2021, 1-12. 10.1007/s00170-021-08287-6
Aluminium alloys processed by wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) exhibit a relatively coarse microstructure with a columnar morphology. A powerful measure to refine the microstructure and to enhance mechanical properties is to promote grain refinement during solidification. Addition of ceramic nanoparticles has shown great potential as grain refiner and strengthening phase in aluminium alloys. Thus, an Al-Mg alloy mixed with TiC nanoparticles was manufactured by the novel metal screw extrusion method to a wire and subsequently deposited by WAAM. Measures to restrict oxidation of magnesium during metal screw extrusion were examined. Purging of CO2 gas into the extrusion chamber resulted in a remarkable reduction in formation of MgO and Mg(OH)2. TiC decomposed to Al3Ti during WAAM deposition, leading to a significant grain refinement of 93% compared to a commercial benchmark. The presence of remaining TiC nanoparticles accounted for an increased hardness of the WAAM material through thermal expansion mismatch strengthening and Orowan strengthening. Exposure of TiC to moisture in air during metal screw extrusion increased the internal hydrogen content significantly, and a highly porous structure was seen after WAAM deposition.