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dc.contributor.authorLazou, Adamantia
dc.contributor.authorEijk, Casper van der
dc.contributor.authorBalomenos, Efthymios
dc.contributor.authorKolbeinsen, Leiv
dc.contributor.authorSafarian, Jafar
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Sustainable Metallurgy. 2020, 6 (2), 227-238.en_US
dc.description.abstractThe Bayer Process is the dominant industrial method to produce alumina from bauxite ore. Due to the generation of large amounts of Bauxite Residue (red mud), an alternative method, called the Pedersen Process, is of our interest. This process makes use of a combination of pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical techniques in order to prevent the Bauxite Residue generation. In the conventional Pedersen Process, iron in the bauxite is separated in the form of pig iron through a carbothermic smelting-reduction step which has a CO2 emission similar to that during conventional iron production. In order to eliminate the CO2 emission of this step, the focus of the present work is to reduce the iron oxides of bauxite ore by hydrogen gas (H2) prior to smelting and minimizing the use of solid carbon materials for the reduction. The thermochemistry and the kinetics of reactions during calcination and direct reduction of a bauxite ore were studied by a thermogravimetric technique and in situ analysis of the gaseous products. The onset temperatures for the decomposition of bauxite components during calcination were determined. The kinetics of the reduction of hematite to metallic iron was studied and it is shown that the reduction of iron oxides to metallic iron starts at temperatures below 560 °C and it accelerates at higher temperatures. Moreover, it is indicated that the formation of hercynite (FeAl2O4) phase retards the complete reduction at temperatures higher than 760 °C.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.subjectPedersen processen_US
dc.subjectReduction with hydrogenen_US
dc.subjectBauxite oreen_US
dc.titleOn the Direct Reduction Phenomena of Bauxite Ore Using H2 Gas in a Fixed Bed Reactoren_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright: The Authors. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
dc.source.journalJournal of Sustainable Metallurgyen_US

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