Metallurgical Aspects in the Welding of Clad Pipelines—A Global Outlook
Journal article, Peer reviewed
MetadataShow full item record
Original versionApplied Sciences. 2019, 9 (15), . 10.3390/app9153118
In the present work, the metallurgical changes in the welding of clad pipelines are studied. Clad pipes consist of a complex multi-material system, with (i) the clad being stainless steel or a nickel-based superalloy, (ii) the pipe being API X60 or X65 high-strength carbon steel, and (iii) the welding wire being a nickel-based superalloy or stainless steel in the root and hot pass, with a nickel or iron buffer layer, followed by filling with carbon steel wire. Alternatively, the corrosion resistant alloy may be used only. During production of the clad pipe, at the diffusion bonding temperature, substantial material changes may occur. These are carbon diffusion from the carbon steel to the clad, followed by the formation of hard martensite at the interface on cooling. The solidification behavior and microstructure evolution in the weld metal and in the heat-affected zone are further discussed for the different material combinations. Solidification behavior was also numerically estimated to show solidification parameters and resulting solidification modes.