• A study of anode baking gas composition 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Brandvik, Trond; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Gaertner, Heiko; Ratvik, Arne Petter (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      A method has been developed to measure gas composition inside the pit in open anode baking furnaces. The gas composition can be used to understand attack on and degradation of the refractory lining, baking behavior and ...
    • Alumina scale composition and growth rate in distribution pipes 

      Haugland, Ingrid Bokn; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Røyset, Arne Karstein; Vullum, Per Erik; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Halstensen, Maths (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      Scaling in distribution pipes for secondary alumina is a major issue in aluminium smelters. The scale is formed inside the distribution pipes, and gradually reduces the cross section that is available for alumina transport. ...
    • Electrode behaviors of Na-Zn liquid metal battery 

      Xu, Junli; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Osen, Karen Sende; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Kongstein, Ole Edvard; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017)
      The electroreduction processes on a Mo electrode in a Na-Zn liquid metal battery cell with a molten NaCl-CaCl2-ZnCl2 electrolyte were investigated at 565°C. The effect of the battery operating parameters on the loss rate ...
    • Evaluation of Gas Composition from Laboratory Scale Electrolysis Experiments with Anodes of Different Sulphur Content 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Ferber, Alain Marc C; Ratvik, Arne Petter (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      With the anticipated decrease in available anode raw materials, future anodes are expected to contain higher levels of impurities. Currently the implications of this are being investigated through evaluation of electrochemical ...
    • Hydrogen quality sampling at the hydrogen refuelling station - lessons learnt on sampling at the production and at the nozzle 

      Bacquart, Thomas; Moore, Niamh; Hart, Nick; Morris, Abigail; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Aupretre, Fabien; Colas, Thibault; Haloua, Frédérique; Gozlan, Bruno; Murugan, Arul (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      Fuel cell electric vehicles and hydrogen refuelling infrastructure are developing quickly in Europe, the USA and Asia. Hydrogen quality for transport applications requires compliance with ISO 14687-2: 2012 and EN 17124:2018 ...
    • Mapping of hydrogen fuel quality in Europe 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Ferber, Alain Marc C; Hsu, Jong Pyong; Bacquart, Thomas (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      As part of FCH-JU funded HyCoRA project running from 2014 to 2017, 28 gaseous and 13 particulate samples were collected from hydrogen refueling stations in Europe. Samples were collected with commercial sampling instruments ...
    • Online monitoring of aluminium primary production gas composition by use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Ferber, Alain Marc C; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Gaertner, Heiko (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2014)
      Online monitoring of aluminium primary production raw gas is challenging due to the high concentration of HF in the presence of water. Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) analyzers retrofitted with sapphire optical windows allow for ...
    • Perfluorocarbon Formation During Rare Earth Electrolysis 

      Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Sommerseth, Camilla; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Gaertner, Heiko; Chamelot, Pierre; Gibilaro, Mathieu; Massot, Laurent (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      A challenge during rare earth (RE) electrolysis is to avoid emissions of perfluorocarbon (PFC) green-house gases. The objective of this work was to study how to operate the RE electrolysis process with neither PFC formation ...
    • PFC Evolution Characteristics During Aluminium and Rare Earth Electrolysis 

      Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Solheim, Asbjørn; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Sommerseth, Camilla; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Gaertner, Heiko (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018)
      In addition to aluminium electrolysis, the electrolysis of rare earth (RE) metals from fluoride melts is a significant source of perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions to the atmosphere. These processes have many similarities, ...
    • PFC evolution characteristics during aluminium and rare earth electrolysis 

      Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Solheim, Asbjørn; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Sommerseth, Camilla; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Gaertner, Heiko (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
    • Porous Carbon Anodes for the Supply of Methane during Electrowinning of Aluminium 

      Khalaghi, Babak; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Osen, Karen Sende; Mokkelbost, Tommy; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Chapter; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      One of the major downsides of the current aluminium production process is the high amount of CO2 e mission. One alternative is to replace the consumable carbon anodes with inert anodes so that oxygen evolves instead of CO2 ...