• Bubble Phenomena and Bubble Properties for Horizontal and Vertical Carbon Anode Surfaces in Cryolite Melt Applying a See‐Through Cell 

      Stanic, Nikolina; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne; Sandnes, Espen (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Gas bubble behavior on a carbon anode in a cryolite melt has been studied using a see-through cell. The phenomena studied have been growth, coalescence, detachment, and wetting during electrolysis. The surface orientation ...
    • Interfacial Behaviour in Ferroalloys: The Influence of Sulfur in FeMn and SiMn Systems 

      Bublik, Sergey; Bao, Sarina; Tangstad, Merete; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      The present study has investigated the influence of sulfur content in synthetic FeMn and SiMn from 0 to 1.00 wt pct on interfacial properties between these ferroalloys and slags. The effect of experimental parameters such ...
    • Investigation of Two Immiscible Liquids Wetting at Elevated Temperature: Interaction Between Liquid FeMn Alloy and Liquid Slag 

      Bao, Sarina; Tangstad, Merete; Tang, Kai; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne; Syvertsen, Martin; Onsøien, Morten Ingar; Kudyba, Artur; Bublik, Sergey (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      The goal of the current work is to develop a methodology to study the wetting behaviour of two immiscible liquids at high temperatures, and to investigate the parameters which influence the wetting properties. The wetting ...
    • Lab Scale Experiments on Alumina Raft Formation 

      Gylver, Sindre Engzelius; Solheim, Asbjørn; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Follo, Åste Hegglid; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Chapter; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      During feeding of alumina into a Hall-Héroult cell, rafts floating on the bath surface may be formed. In this study, rafts were created in a laboratory furnace by adding 4 g secondary alumina in industrial bath. Samples ...
    • On pragmatism in industrial modeling 

      Zoric, Josip; Johansen, Stein Tore; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne; Solheim, Asbjørn (SINTEF Proceedings;1, Chapter; Journal article, 2015)
      Many natural or industrial processes are of extreme complexity, and where the time- and length scales range from an atomistic level to years and kilometers. Often the processes or phenomena consist of multiple sub processes ...
    • A Review of Ferroalloy Tapping Models 

      Bublik, Sergey; Olsen, Jan Erik; Loomba, Varun; Reynolds, Quinn Gareth; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Tapping is an important furnace operation in the ferroalloy industry and poses a number of complex and coupled challenges of both practical and economical importance. Owing to the hazardous high-temperature conditions ...
    • Slag Properties in the Primary Production Process of Mn-Ferroalloys. 

      Tangstad, Merete; Bublik, Sergey; Haghdani, Shokouh; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne; Tang, Kai (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of the carbothermic reduction of MnO in the five-component slag, MnO-SiO2-CaO-MgO-Al2O3, is critical in the production process of Mn-ferroalloys. While the reduction rate is mainly ...
    • Slag-metal interactions in the FeMn tapping process: Interfacial properties and wetting 

      Bublik, Sergey; Bao, Sarina; Tangstad, Merete; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne (Chapter, 2019)
      FeMn-alloys are produced by transforming ore and carbon materials into FeMn and slag at high temperatures in a furnace. Entrainment of FeMn in slag during tapping reduces the yield. Entrainment and subsequent separation ...
    • The micro- and macrostructure of alumina rafts 

      Gylver, Sindre Engzelius; Nina Helene, Omdahl; Rørvik, Stein; Hansen, Ingrid; Nautnes, Andrea; Neverdal, Sofie Nilssen; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
    • Towards a coupled multi-scale, multi-physics simulation framework for aluminium electrolysis 

      Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne; Eick, Ingo; Bai, Wei; Feng, Yuqing; Hua, Jinsong; Witt, Peter J. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017)
      Aluminium metal production through electrolytic reduction of alumina in a cryolite bath is a complex, multi-physics, multi-scale process, including magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD), bubble flow, thermal convection, melting and ...
    • Utilization of waste heat for pre-heating of anodes 

      Grimstad, Martin; Elstad, Kim Ronny; Solheim, Asbjørn; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      Carbon anodes are replaced on a regular basis in Hall–Héroult cells as they are consumed by electrochemical reactions. Upon insertion of new anodes, bath will freeze locally as a result of low bath superheat and comparatively ...