• Bubble Phenomena and Bubble Properties for Horizontal and Vertical Carbon Anode Surfaces in Cryolite Melt Applying a See‐Through Cell 

      Stanic, Nikolina; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne; Sandnes, Espen (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Gas bubble behavior on a carbon anode in a cryolite melt has been studied using a see-through cell. The phenomena studied have been growth, coalescence, detachment, and wetting during electrolysis. The surface orientation ...
    • Direct Method for Producing Scandium Metal and Scandium-Aluminium Intermetallic Compounds from the Oxides 

      Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Osen, Karen Sende; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Sommerseth, Camilla; Wang, Zhaohui; Darell, Ove (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      The electrochemical de-oxidation process, also called FFC-Cambridge process, has been proposed previously to produce reactive metals and their alloys through reduction of their metal oxides. The process works by introducing ...
    • Dissolution and Online Monitoring of Nd and Pr Oxides in NdF3-PrF3-LiF Electrolytes 

      Senanu, Samuel; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Støre, Anne; Gebarowski, Wojciech (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Concentrations of dissolved rare earth metal oxides, Nd2O3, and Pr2O3 or their mixtures in different fluoride electrolytes composed of NdF3, PrF3, and LiF at ca. 1040 °C were monitored using a graphite probe inserted into ...
    • Electrochemical Behavior of Tin in Molten LiCl-KCl at 450 ℃ 

      Qin, Bo; Cui, Peng; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      The electrochemical behavior of tin was studied with cyclic voltammetry at glassy carbon electrodes in the fused LiCl-KCl at 450 ℃. Metallic tin deposition on the glassy carbon electrode occurs at a potential of around ...
    • Electrode behaviors of Na-Zn liquid metal battery 

      Xu, Junli; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Osen, Karen Sende; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Kongstein, Ole Edvard; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017)
      The electroreduction processes on a Mo electrode in a Na-Zn liquid metal battery cell with a molten NaCl-CaCl2-ZnCl2 electrolyte were investigated at 565°C. The effect of the battery operating parameters on the loss rate ...
    • Electrodeposition of indium and tin from molten chloride electrolytes 

      Haarberg, Geir Martin; Qin, Bo; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017)
      Recycling of electronic waste to recover the metal value is of prime importance, especially for metals with limited resources. An electrochemical approach should be an interesting option to develop sustainable recycling ...
    • Perfluorocarbon Formation During Rare Earth Electrolysis 

      Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Sommerseth, Camilla; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Gaertner, Heiko; Chamelot, Pierre; Gibilaro, Mathieu; Massot, Laurent (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      A challenge during rare earth (RE) electrolysis is to avoid emissions of perfluorocarbon (PFC) green-house gases. The objective of this work was to study how to operate the RE electrolysis process with neither PFC formation ...
    • PFC Evolution Characteristics During Aluminium and Rare Earth Electrolysis 

      Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Solheim, Asbjørn; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Sommerseth, Camilla; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Gaertner, Heiko (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018)
      In addition to aluminium electrolysis, the electrolysis of rare earth (RE) metals from fluoride melts is a significant source of perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions to the atmosphere. These processes have many similarities, ...
    • PFC evolution characteristics during aluminium and rare earth electrolysis 

      Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Solheim, Asbjørn; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Sommerseth, Camilla; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Gaertner, Heiko (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
    • Recovery of Platinum Group Metals From Secondary Sources by Selective Chlorination from Molten Salt Media 

      Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Osen, Karen Sende; Støre, Anne (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      The use of molten salts as “solvents” offers interesting possibilities for the treatment of ores, industrial by-products as well as scraps, allowing the development of processes that are mid-way between pyro- and ...
    • Removal and recovery of indium from ITO coated glass and scraps using molten salt electrolysis 

      Cui, Peng; Qin, Bo; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      Indium is an important strategic resource due to the scarcity for the metal. In the present study, molten salt electrolysis is used to reduce indium from ITO coated glass and scraps in order to seek a new way to recycle ...