• Direct Method for Producing Scandium Metal and Scandium-Aluminium Intermetallic Compounds from the Oxides 

      Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Osen, Karen Sende; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Sommerseth, Camilla; Wang, Zhaohui; Darell, Ove (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      The electrochemical de-oxidation process, also called FFC-Cambridge process, has been proposed previously to produce reactive metals and their alloys through reduction of their metal oxides. The process works by introducing ...
    • Dissolution and Online Monitoring of Nd and Pr Oxides in NdF3-PrF3-LiF Electrolytes 

      Senanu, Samuel; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Støre, Anne; Gebarowski, Wojciech (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Concentrations of dissolved rare earth metal oxides, Nd2O3, and Pr2O3 or their mixtures in different fluoride electrolytes composed of NdF3, PrF3, and LiF at ca. 1040 °C were monitored using a graphite probe inserted into ...
    • Effect of composition and temperature on current efficiency for aluminium electrolysis from cryolite-based molten alumina electrolytes 

      Morishige, Taiki; Haarberg, Geir Martin; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Skybakmoen, Egil; Solheim, Asbjørn; Takenaka, Toshihide (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017)
      The current efficiency (CE) for aluminium electrolysis in modern cells can be as high as 96 %. The main reason for loss in current efficiency is the so-called back reaction between dissolved metal and the anode product of ...
    • Evaluation of Gas Composition from Laboratory Scale Electrolysis Experiments with Anodes of Different Sulphur Content 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Ferber, Alain Marc C; Ratvik, Arne Petter (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      With the anticipated decrease in available anode raw materials, future anodes are expected to contain higher levels of impurities. Currently the implications of this are being investigated through evaluation of electrochemical ...
    • Lab Scale Experiments on Alumina Raft Formation 

      Gylver, Sindre Engzelius; Solheim, Asbjørn; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Follo, Åste Hegglid; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Chapter; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      During feeding of alumina into a Hall-Héroult cell, rafts floating on the bath surface may be formed. In this study, rafts were created in a laboratory furnace by adding 4 g secondary alumina in industrial bath. Samples ...
    • Perfluorocarbon Formation During Rare Earth Electrolysis 

      Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Sommerseth, Camilla; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Gaertner, Heiko; Chamelot, Pierre; Gibilaro, Mathieu; Massot, Laurent (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      A challenge during rare earth (RE) electrolysis is to avoid emissions of perfluorocarbon (PFC) green-house gases. The objective of this work was to study how to operate the RE electrolysis process with neither PFC formation ...
    • PFC Evolution Characteristics During Aluminium and Rare Earth Electrolysis 

      Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Solheim, Asbjørn; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Sommerseth, Camilla; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Gaertner, Heiko (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018)
      In addition to aluminium electrolysis, the electrolysis of rare earth (RE) metals from fluoride melts is a significant source of perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions to the atmosphere. These processes have many similarities, ...
    • PFC evolution characteristics during aluminium and rare earth electrolysis 

      Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Solheim, Asbjørn; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Sommerseth, Camilla; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Gaertner, Heiko (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
    • Porous Carbon Anodes for the Supply of Methane during Electrowinning of Aluminium 

      Khalaghi, Babak; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Osen, Karen Sende; Mokkelbost, Tommy; Haarberg, Geir Martin (Chapter; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      One of the major downsides of the current aluminium production process is the high amount of CO2 e mission. One alternative is to replace the consumable carbon anodes with inert anodes so that oxygen evolves instead of CO2 ...