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dc.contributor.authorNoventa, Seta
dc.contributor.authorBoyles, Matthew S.P.
dc.contributor.authorSeifert, Andreas
dc.contributor.authorBelluco, Simone
dc.contributor.authorSánchez Jiménez, Aracaeli
dc.contributor.authorJohnston, Helinor J.
dc.contributor.authorTran, Lang
dc.contributor.authorFernandes, Teresa F.
dc.contributor.authorMughini-Gras, Lapo
dc.contributor.authorCorami, Fabiana
dc.contributor.authorCastro, Kepa
dc.contributor.authorMutinelli, Franco
dc.contributor.authorBoldrin, Massimo
dc.contributor.authorPuntes, Victor
dc.contributor.authorSotoudeh, Mahshid
dc.contributor.authorMascarello, Giulia
dc.contributor.authorTiozzo, Barbara
dc.contributor.authorMcLean, Polly
dc.contributor.authorRonchi, Francesca
dc.contributor.authorBooth, Andy
dc.contributor.authorKoelmans, Albert A.
dc.contributor.authorLosasso, Carmen
dc.identifier.citationMicroplastics and Nanoplastics. 2021, 1 (9), 1-27.en_US
dc.description.abstractHuman exposure to nano- and microplastics (NMPs) has raised major societal concerns, yet no framework to assess the risks of NMPs for human health exists. A substantial proportion of plastic produced worldwide is not properly disposed and persists in the environment for decades while degrading. Plastic degradation generates a size continuum of fragments, including nano- and microplastic particles, with numerous associated environmental pollutants and plastic additives, and microbial communities colonising their surfaces. The ubiquitous presence of NMPs, their availability for uptake by organisms and their potential to act as vectors for toxicants and pathogens render risk assessment a priority on the political agenda at the global level. We provide a new, fully integrated risk assessment framework tailored to the specificities of NMPs, enabling an assessment of current and future human health risks from NMPs. The framework consists of four novel paradigms to the traditional risk assessment methodology. These paradigms deal with techniques in NMP analysis, gaps in empirical data, theoretical and modelling approaches and stakeholder engagement. Within the proposed framework, we propose how we can use research experiences gained so far to carry out the different steps of the assessment process, and we define priorities for further research.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.subjectstakeholder engagementen_US
dc.subjecthazard characterizationen_US
dc.subjectexposure assessmenten_US
dc.subjecthazard identificationen_US
dc.subjecthuman healthen_US
dc.subjectrisk assessmenten_US
dc.titleParadigms to assess the human health risks of nano- and microplasticsen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.rights.holder© The Author(s). 2021 Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
dc.source.journalMicroplastics and Nanoplasticsen_US

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