Integrating accountability in the systems design of autonomous and remote-controlled operations
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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In a previous paper we have suggested that the transferal of human accountability from an on-site human actor (such as the captain) to a remote human actor (such as the creator of the autonomous control system) could be regarded as the defining characteristic of autonomous systems. In this paper we take this approach one step further, by suggesting a methodology for how accountability can be used as a basis for systems design of autonomous and remote-controlled operations. Furthermore, the suggested methodology is applied on a hypothetical case of a vessel supporting both autonomous and remote-controlled operation.