Stress-strain curves of metallic materials and post-necking strain hardening characterization: A Review
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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For metallic materials, standard uniaxial tensile tests with round bar specimens or flat specimens only provide accurate equivalent stress–strain curve before diffuse necking. However, for numerical modelling of problems where very large strains occur, such as plastic forming and ductile damage and fracture, understanding the post‐necking strain hardening behaviour is necessary. Also, welding is a highly complex metallurgical process, and therefore, weldments are susceptible to material discontinuities, flaws, and residual stresses. It becomes even more important to characterize the equivalent stress–strain curve in large strains of each material zone in weldments properly for structural integrity assessment. The aim of this paper is to provide a state‐of‐the‐art review on quasi‐static standard tensile test for stress–strain curves measurement of metallic materials. Meanwhile, methods available in literature for characterization of the equivalent stress–strain curve in the post‐necking regime are introduced. Novel methods with axisymmetric notched round bar specimens for accurately capturing the equivalent stress–strain curve of each material zone in weldment are presented as well. Advantages and limitations of these methods are briefly discussed.