• A study of anode baking gas composition 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Brandvik, Trond; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Gaertner, Heiko; Ratvik, Arne Petter (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      A method has been developed to measure gas composition inside the pit in open anode baking furnaces. The gas composition can be used to understand attack on and degradation of the refractory lining, baking behavior and ...
    • Airborne Emissions from Mn Ferroalloy Production 

      Kero, Ida; Eidem, Per Anders; Ma, Yan; Indresand, Hege; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Grådahl, Svend (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018)
      Airborne emissions from metal production represent a health, safety, and environmental challenge to which more and more attention is being directed. Industries worldwide, as well as authorities and others, are resolute in ...
    • Alumina scale composition and growth rate in distribution pipes 

      Haugland, Ingrid Bokn; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Røyset, Arne Karstein; Vullum, Per Erik; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Halstensen, Maths (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      Scaling in distribution pipes for secondary alumina is a major issue in aluminium smelters. The scale is formed inside the distribution pipes, and gradually reduces the cross section that is available for alumina transport. ...
    • Aluminium Primary Production Off-Gas Composition and Emissions: An Overview 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Ratvik, Arne Petter (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      The raw gas composition from primary aluminium production depends mostly on the process technology applied and the composition of the raw materials. At steady state, a stationary condition is established among the material ...
    • Evaluation of Gas Composition from Laboratory Scale Electrolysis Experiments with Anodes of Different Sulphur Content 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Ferber, Alain Marc C; Ratvik, Arne Petter (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2016)
      With the anticipated decrease in available anode raw materials, future anodes are expected to contain higher levels of impurities. Currently the implications of this are being investigated through evaluation of electrochemical ...
    • Feeding a Gas Turbine with Aluminum Plant Exhaust for Increased CO2 Concentration in Capture Plant 

      Jordal, Kristin; Anantharaman, Rahul; Genrup, Magnus; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Bakken, Jørn; Lilliestråle, Astrid; Mejdell, Thor; Holt, Nancy J. (Journal article, 2015)
      Aluminum production contributes to global CO2 emissions both due to the production process itself and due to the generation of electric power required for aluminum production. A concept is presented for increasing the CO2 ...
    • HYDRAITE presentation 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders (Lecture, 2020)
      FCH2 JU HYDRAITE (Hydrogen Delivery Risk Assessment and Impurity Tolerance Assurance) project outline - sampling
    • Hydrogen quality sampling at the hydrogen refuelling station - lessons learnt on sampling at the production and at the nozzle 

      Bacquart, Thomas; Moore, Niamh; Hart, Nick; Morris, Abigail; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Aupretre, Fabien; Colas, Thibault; Haloua, Frédérique; Gozlan, Bruno; Murugan, Arul (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      Fuel cell electric vehicles and hydrogen refuelling infrastructure are developing quickly in Europe, the USA and Asia. Hydrogen quality for transport applications requires compliance with ISO 14687-2: 2012 and EN 17124:2018 ...
    • Impurity Elements in Raw Gas Ultra-Fines from Aluminium Electrolysis Cells 

      Gaertner, Heiko; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Aarhaug, Thor Anders (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2012)
      The effect of alumina feeding and pot suction rate on the amount and composition of fine particles in raw gases has been investigated. Particle size distribution of ultra-fines (Di < 10 μm) were measured in real time and ...
    • In situ monitoring of pit gas composition during baking of anodes for aluminum electrolysis 

      Brandvik, Trond; Gaertner, Heiko; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Grande, Tor; Aarhaug, Thor Anders (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
    • Investigation of Sodium Sulfate Additions into Cryolite-Alumina Melts 

      Meirbekova, Rauan; Haarberg, Geir Martin; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Sævarsdóttir, Gudrun A. (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016)
      In the Hall-Héroult process, sulfur impurities may not only emit harmful gases but also reduce current efficiency. To better understand this process, the behaviour of sulfur compounds in a cryolite-alumina melt at 1253 K ...
    • Mapping of hydrogen fuel quality in Europe 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Ferber, Alain Marc C; Hsu, Jong Pyong; Bacquart, Thomas (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      As part of FCH-JU funded HyCoRA project running from 2014 to 2017, 28 gaseous and 13 particulate samples were collected from hydrogen refueling stations in Europe. Samples were collected with commercial sampling instruments ...
    • A method for comparing the HF formation potential of aluminas with different water contents 

      Sommerseth, Camilla; Osen, Karen Sende; Rosenkilde, Christian; Meyer, Astrid J.; Kristiansen, Linda; Aarhaug, Thor Anders (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2012)
      In the aluminium industry today, smelters often have to rely on more than one alumina supplier. This creates diversity in the properties of smelter grade alumina (SGA). A method has been developed to compare the HF formation ...
    • Online measurements of fluoride ions in proton exchange membrane water electrolysis through ion chromatography 

      Marocco, Paolo; Sundseth, Kyrre; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Lanzini, Andrea; Santarelli, Massimo; Barnett, Alejandro Oyarce; Thomassen, Magnus (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      This work investigates the online monitoring of fluoride ion concentration in proton exchange membrane water electrolysers (PEMWE) effluent water using an automated ion chromatography (IC) setup. Prototype catalyst coated ...
    • Online monitoring of aluminium primary production gas composition by use of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Ferber, Alain Marc C; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Gaertner, Heiko (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2014)
      Online monitoring of aluminium primary production raw gas is challenging due to the high concentration of HF in the presence of water. Tunable Diode Laser (TDL) analyzers retrofitted with sapphire optical windows allow for ...
    • Particulate emissions from electrolysis cells 

      Gaertner, Heiko; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Aarhaug, Thor Anders (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2011)
      In the dry cleaning of the exhaust gas from the aluminium cells impurities are accumulated in the finer fractions of secondary alumina from the dry scrubbers. The present work describes new methods for the determination ...
    • Perfluorocarbon Formation During Rare Earth Electrolysis 

      Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Sommerseth, Camilla; Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Gaertner, Heiko; Chamelot, Pierre; Gibilaro, Mathieu; Massot, Laurent (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
      A challenge during rare earth (RE) electrolysis is to avoid emissions of perfluorocarbon (PFC) green-house gases. The objective of this work was to study how to operate the RE electrolysis process with neither PFC formation ...
    • PFC Evolution Characteristics During Aluminium and Rare Earth Electrolysis 

      Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Solheim, Asbjørn; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Sommerseth, Camilla; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Gaertner, Heiko (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018)
      In addition to aluminium electrolysis, the electrolysis of rare earth (RE) metals from fluoride melts is a significant source of perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions to the atmosphere. These processes have many similarities, ...
    • PFC evolution characteristics during aluminium and rare earth electrolysis 

      Kjos, Ole Sigmund; Solheim, Asbjørn; Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Osen, Karen Sende; Martinez, Ana Maria Cuellar; Sommerseth, Camilla; Gudbrandsen, Henrik; Støre, Anne; Gaertner, Heiko (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2018)
    • Potentiometric Fluoride Analysis with Improved Analytical Performance 

      Aarhaug, Thor Anders; Nagy, Kalman; Smith, Kieran G. (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2012)
      Since the 1960s SINTEF has, in collaboration with the Nordic aluminium smelters, developed methods for sampling and analysis of fluoride. Unlike conventional potentiometric analysis, this methodology involves detection of ...