• Characterisation of a Real-World Søderberg Electrode 

      Glastonbury, Ralph; Beukes, Paul; van Zyl, Pieter Gideon; Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli; Dall, Douglas; Steenkamp, Joalet Dalene; Mushwana, Masana (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Very little research on Søderberg electrodes has been published in the journal peer reviewed public domain. The main aim of this work is to characterise a Søderberg electrode that was cut off approximately 0.5 m below the ...
    • Characterisation of a Real-World Søderberg Electrode 

      Glastonbury, Ralph; Beukes, Paul; van Zyl, Pieter Gideon; Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli; Dall, Douglas; Steenkamp, Joalet Dalene; Mushwana, Masana (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Very little research on Søderberg electrodes has been published in the journal peer reviewed public domain. The main aim of this work is to characterise a Søderberg electrode that was cut off approximately 0.5 m below the ...
    • Characterization of a Si-SiO2 mixture generated from SiO and CO 

      Broggi, Andrea; Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019)
      The reaction between SiO(g) and CO(g) is a relevant intermediate reaction in the silicon production process. One of the products generated from this gas mixture is called by its color, brown condensate. In this paper, ...
    • Damring formation during rotary kiln chromite pre-reduction: Effects of pulverized carbonaceous fuel selection and partial pellet melting 

      van Staden, Yolindi; Beukes, Johan Paul; van Zyl, Pieter Gideon; Ringdalen, Eli; Tangstad, Merete; Kleynhans, Ernst L.J.; Bunt, John Reginald (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018)
      Electricity consumption is the largest cost contributing factor in the production of ferrochrome. Currently the pelletized chromite pre-reduction process (solid-state reduction of chromite) is the process option with the ...
    • Effect of different SiO2 polymorphs on the reaction between SiO2 and SiC in Si production 

      Folstad, Marit Buhaug; Ringdalen, Eli; Tveit, Halvard; Tangstad, Merete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      This work investigates the phase transformations in silica (SiO2) during heating to a target temperature between 1700 °C and 1900 °C and the effect of SiO2 polymorphs on the reduction reaction 2SiO2 + SiC = 3SiO + CO in ...
    • Energy Distribution in HC FeMn and SiMn - Energy vs Exergy Analyses 

      Larssen, Trine Asklund; Kero, Ida; Tangstad, Merete (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      The metal producing industry is a high consumer of energy and large amounts of excess heat are produced. Increasing the energy efficiency would be beneficial, both in terms of the environment and also from an economical ...
    • Evolution of SiOx shell layers on SiC-SiOx core-shell nanowires 

      Broggi, Andrea; Ringdalen, Eli; Tangstad, Merete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      Composite core-shell SiC-SiOx nanowires can be produced by heating quartz and SiC powders, with addition of Ar(g) or He(g). The two powders are mixed to create pellets, which will react to SiO(g) and CO(g) at elevated ...
    • Gaseous reduction of Mn ores in CO-CO2 atmosphere 

      Larssen, Trine Asklund; Tangstad, Merete; Kero, Ida (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Chapter, 2018)
      The efficiency in production of manganese ferroalloys is dependent on the gaseous reduction of the higher manganese oxides in the ores used as raw materials. The materials, descending in the furnace, will meet the furnace ...
    • High temperature interaction between Si–B alloys and Si3N4 

      Jiao, Jian Meng; Tang, Kai; Safarian, Jafar; Grorud, Bettina; Sellevoll, Kathrine; Tangstad, Merete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      Si3N4 is a candidate crucible material for Si–B alloys in high temperature thermal energy storage system. In this regard, the phase formation in the Si–B alloys and the interaction between the alloys and Si3N4 were ...
    • In situ observation of the carbothermic reduction and foaming of slags in silicomanganese production 

      Canaguier, Vincent Yves; Tangstad, Merete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      The carbothermic reduction of slag in silicomanganese production is accompanied by the release of carbon monoxide. This gas can accumulate as bubbles within the slag, leading to foaming and, potentially, disturbances to ...
    • Interfacial Behaviour in Ferroalloys: The Influence of Sulfur in FeMn and SiMn Systems 

      Bublik, Sergey; Bao, Sarina; Tangstad, Merete; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      The present study has investigated the influence of sulfur content in synthetic FeMn and SiMn from 0 to 1.00 wt pct on interfacial properties between these ferroalloys and slags. The effect of experimental parameters such ...
    • Investigation of Two Immiscible Liquids Wetting at Elevated Temperature: Interaction Between Liquid FeMn Alloy and Liquid Slag 

      Bao, Sarina; Tangstad, Merete; Tang, Kai; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne; Syvertsen, Martin; Onsøien, Morten Ingar; Kudyba, Artur; Bublik, Sergey (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2021)
      The goal of the current work is to develop a methodology to study the wetting behaviour of two immiscible liquids at high temperatures, and to investigate the parameters which influence the wetting properties. The wetting ...
    • A multiscale numerical approach of the dripping slag in the coke bed zone of a pilot scale Si-Mn furnace 

      Letout, Sebastien Romain; Ratvik, Arne Petter; Tangstad, Merete; Johansen, Stein Tore; Olsen, Jan Erik (SINTEF proceedings;2387-4295, Chapter, 2017)
      The Si-Mn alloy process production in submerged arc furnaces (SAF) is investigated. The aim of the studies currently in progress is an enhancement of the knowledge about the key reactions and the mass transport phenomenon ...
    • Ore melting and reduction in silicomanganese production 

      Ringdalen, Eli; Gaal, S.; Tangstad, Merete; Ostrovski, Oleg (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2010)
      The charge for silicomangansese production consists of manganese ore (often mixed with ferromanganese slag) dolomite or calcite, quartz, and in some cases, other additions. These materials have different melting properties, ...
    • Phase Transformations from Quartz to Cristobalite 

      Jusnes, Karin Fjeldstad; Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series;2367-1181, Chapter, 2018)
      Two quartz types used in the silicon and ferrosilicon industry were heated to temperatures of 1600 and 1700 °C. The parameters varied were the temperature and the holding time at maximum temperature. The amount of quartz, ...
    • Pilot Scale Production of Manganese Ferroalloys Using Heat-Treated Mn-Nodules 

      Tangstad, Merete; Ringdalen, Eli; Manilla, Edmundo; Davila, Daniel (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017)
      Pilot-scale experiments are one way to investigate the process patterns and the reaction mechanisms of processes and raw materials. To understand a process fully, both theoretical considerations as well as small-scale ...
    • Reduction and Dissolution Behaviour of Manganese Slag in the Ferromanganese Process 

      Li, Xiang; Tang, Kai; Tangstad, Merete (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      The reduction and liquidus behaviour of manganese slag with different basicities were studied in non-isothermal experiments in the temperature range of 1400–1500 °C. Certain amounts of quartz were added to Assmang ore ...
    • Silicon carbide formation from methane and silicon monoxide 

      Aarnæs, Trygve Storm; Ringdalen, Eli; Tangstad, Merete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      Silicon carbide (SiC) formation plays an important role during the production of elemental silicon. SiC forms through a high temperature reaction between silicon monoxide gas (SiO) and carbon. Currently, the carbon sources ...
    • Slag-metal interactions in the FeMn tapping process: Interfacial properties and wetting 

      Bublik, Sergey; Bao, Sarina; Tangstad, Merete; Einarsrud, Kristian Etienne (Chapter, 2019)
      FeMn-alloys are produced by transforming ore and carbon materials into FeMn and slag at high temperatures in a furnace. Entrainment of FeMn in slag during tapping reduces the yield. Entrainment and subsequent separation ...
    • Thermodynamic and Kinetic Behavior of B and Na Through the Contact of B-Doped Silicon with Na2O-SiO2 Slags 

      Safarian-Dastjerdi, Jafar; Tranell, Gabriella; Tangstad, Merete (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2013)
      Boron (B) is the most problematic impurity to be removed in the processes applied for the production of solar grade silicon. Boron removal from liquid silicon by sodium-silicate slags is experimentally studied and it is ...